In many University workplaces, flying particles, dusts, vapours, chemicals or harmful rays can create a potential for eye or face injury. Whenever practicable, these hazards shall be eliminated or minimized through the use of substitution or engineering controls. To protect against those hazards which continue to exist after all such control measures have been implemented, appropriate protective eyewear or facewear must be used. This standard is based on the Canadian Standards Association (CSA) Standard Z94.3-92 and the American National Standards Institute (ANSI) Z87.1-1989.
Any worker who may be exposed to eye or face injury from an operation
or process conducted within a University of Toronto workplace.
Note: In this standard, "worker" includes faculty, staff, students and visitors.
Principal investigators/supervisors and all others in authority shall:
Eye and face injuries may be prevented by using the appropriate protective eyewear and facewear for the job. Appropriate protective wear must protect against the specific hazard presented, provide a comfortable and secure fit, and comply with CSA Standard Z94.3-92 "Industrial Eye and Face Protectors."
Appendix A outlines the recommended protectors to be worn when exposed to specific eye and face hazards.
The following outlines the general categories of protective eyewear and facewear:
1) Spectacle Type Safety Glasses
Safety glasses have lenses that are impact resistant and frames that are far stronger than those of regular eyeglasses. "Plano" (non-prescription) or prescription safety glasses (for those who need corrective lenses) with permanently attached sideshields must be worn by those who require protection against flying particles. Safety glasses must comply with CSA Standard Z94.3-92 .
Safety glasses come in a variety of lens materials, shades and tints. Lens materials include polycarbonate, plastic or glass, each of which varies in strength, impact resistance, scratch resistance and weight. It should be noted that current glass material lenses are unlikely to meet the impact requirements of CSA Standard Z94.3-92.
Regular eyeglasses must not be used in place of protective eyewear. Safety goggles must be worn over regular eyeglasses to protect against potential eye hazards. Alternatively, prescription safety glasses may be used.
2) Safety Goggles
Safety goggles offer greater eye protection than safety glasses by providing a secure shield around the entire eye area to protect against hazards coming from any direction.
Safety goggles are impact resistant and must meet the requirements of CSA Standard Z94.3-92. Like safety glasses, they are available in a variety of tints and shades.
Safety goggles may have direct or indirect ventilation to protect against fogging. Goggles with direct ventilation allow heat and humidity to dissipate, but do not protect against splash hazards. Goggles with indirect ventilation are designed to protect against dust and splash hazards.
3) Face Shields
Face shields worn alone are not considered protective eyewear. They are designed to provide general protection to the face and the front of the neck. Full face shields are often used to protect against chemicals or heat or glare hazards. Face shields do not fully enclose the eyes, and are to be used in conjunction with primary eye protectors such as safety glasses or goggles. Face shields are available with crown protectors to protect the front part of the head, or chin protectors.
4) Welding Helmets
Welding helmets are used when welding or working with molten materials. They are designed to provide protection to the face and the front of the neck from heat, glare, weld spatter and impact hazards.
5) Specialty Filter Lenses
Protective eyewear (i.e. goggles,
helmets) equipped with appropriate filter lenses must be used to protect
against harmful light or other rays, e.g. infrared, ultraviolet, laser
Contact Lenses in the Chemical Work Environment
Current evidence indicates that the use of contact lenses in the workplace, on the whole, does not place the wearer at additional risk of eye injury. Situations in which the use of contact lenses have minimized or prevented injury far exceed those in which they might have increased or exacerbated injury. This has been attributed to some obvious advantages related to the use of contact lenses, including increased visual acuity and better fit of protective eyewear than with eyeglasses. Furthermore, concerns associated with an increased risk of eye injury due to chemical splash or the absorption and retention of gases and vapours by the contact lens materials have not been supported by scientific evidence or human experience. Although there are some chemicals which interact adversely with contact lens materials, there have been many more instances where the contact lenses have been shown to provide a barrier to chemicals.
Based on existing evidence, it is
reasonable to allow the use of contact lenses in chemical work environments.
Contact lenses are not protective devices, and must be used only
in conjunction with appropriate protective eyewear in eye hazard areas
(e.g. splash goggles must be worn in an environment where hazardous liquid
chemicals are handled or used).
glasses and goggles are specifically designed to protect the eyes. Where
the use of safety glasses and goggles is indicated, one may use either
safety glasses or safety goggles. In contrast, face shields are
designed primarily to protect the face and neck area, and only provide
secondary protection to the eyes. Face shields must be used in conjunction
with safety glasses or goggles, and not as a substitute for either of them.
|NATURE OF HAZARD||EXAMPLES OF ACTIVITIES
||SAFETY GLASSES||SAFETY GOGGLES||FACE SHIELDS||WELDING HELMET
|1) Flying Objects||Chipping, scaling, stonework, hammering, lathework||1a||2a||3a||NS|
|Rivetting, punching, shearing, wire and strip handling||1a||2a||NS||NS|
|2) Flying Particles, Dust, Wind, etc.||Grinding, buffing, polishing, woodworking, sanding, turning, light metal work and machining, concrete work, plastering, material batching and mixing, exposure to dust and wind||1a||2b||3a||NS|
|3) Abrasive Blasting Materials||Sandblasting and shotblasting||NS||2b||NS||NS|
|4) Splashing from Molten Metal||Casting, pouring molten metal, hot dipping operations||NS||2b||3b||NS|
|5) Splashing from Liquid Chemicals||Acid and alkali handling, degreasing, pickling and plating operations, chemical spray||NS||2b||3b||NS|
|6) Heat, Glare, and Stray Light (slight reduction of optical radiation is required)||Bright sun and light, reflected welding flash||1b||2c||NS||NS|
|Spot welding, stud welding||NS||2c||3b||NS|
|7) Injurious Optical Radiation (large reduction of optical radiation is required)||Electric arc welding, heavy gas cutting, plasma cutting||1c||NS||NS||Yes|
|8) Other Injurious Optical Radiation||Radiation within the Nominal Hazard Zone of Class 3b and Class 4 lasers where exposures above the Maximum Permissible Exposure can occur||NS||Goggles with specialty filters||NS||NS|